Cray has been commissioned by Lawrence Livermore Nationwide Laboratory to create a supercomputer head and shoulders above all the remainder, with the contract valued at some $600 million. Disappointingly, El Capitan, because the system will probably be referred to as, will probably be roughly solely devoted to redesigning our nuclear armament.
El Capitan would be the third “exascale” pc being constructed by Cray for the U.S. authorities, the opposite two being Aurora for Argonne Nationwide Lab and Frontier for Oak Ridge. These computer systems are constructed on an entire new structure referred to as Shasta, wherein Cray intends to mix the velocity and scale of excessive efficiency computing with the simple administration of cloud-based enterprise instruments.
Due for supply in 2022, El Capitan will probably be working on the order of 1.5 exaflops, or floating level operations per second, a measure of calculation typically used to trace supercomputer efficiency. Exa denotes a quintillion of one thing.
Proper now the highest canine is already at Oak Ridge: an IBM-built system referred to as Sierra. At about 1.5 petaflops, it’s about 1/10th the ability of Aurora — after all, the previous is operational and the latter is theoretical proper now, however you get the concept.
One wonders precisely what all this computing energy is required for. There are in truth numerous domains of science that might be superior by entry to a system like El Capitan — simulations of atmospheric and geological processes, as an illustration, might be simulated in 3D at a bigger scale and better constancy than ever earlier than.
So it was a bit disheartening to study that El Capitan will, as soon as absolutely operational, be devoted nearly solely to labeled nuclear weaponry design.
To be clear, that doesn’t simply imply larger and extra deadly bombs. The contract is being carried out with the collaboration of the Nationwide Nuclear Safety Administration, which after all oversees the nuclear stockpile alongside the Division of Power and army. It’s an enormous operation, as you would possibly anticipate.
We’ve an ageing nuclear weapons stockpile that was primarily designed and engineered over a interval of many years ending within the ’90s. We could not have to construct new ones, however we do really should hold our outdated ones in good condition, not simply in case of battle however to forestall them failing of their advancing age and decrepitude.
“We wish to say that whereas the stockpile was designed in two dimensions, it’s really ageing in three,” stated LLNL director Invoice Goldstein in a teleconference name on Monday. “We’re at present redesigning each warhead and supply system. That is the primary time we’ve been doing performed this for about 30 years now. This requires us to have the ability to simulate the interplay between the physics of the nuclear system and the engineering options of the supply system. These are actual engineering interactions and are actually 3D. That is an instance of a brand new requirement that we’ve to satisfy, a brand new drawback that we’ve to resolve, and we merely can’t depend on two dimensional simulations to get at. And El Capitan is being delivered simply in time to handle this drawback.”
Though in response to my query Goldstein declined to supply a concrete instance of a 3D versus 2D analysis query or end result, citing the labeled nature of the work, it’s clear that his remarks are supposed to be taken each actually and figuratively. The depth, so to talk, of things affecting a nuclear weapons system could also be stated to have been a lot flatter within the ’90s, after we lacked the computing assets to do the complicated physics simulations that may inform their design. So each conceptually and spatially the design course of has expanded.
That stated, let’s be clear: “warhead and supply methods” means nukes, and that’s what this $600 million supercomputer will probably be devoted to.
There’s a silver lining there: Earlier than being air-gapped and coming into into its labeled operations, El Capitan may have a “shakeout interval” throughout which others may have entry to it. So whereas for many of its life will probably be exhausting at work on weapons methods, throughout its childhood will probably be capable of expertise a wider breadth of scientific issues.
The precise time frame and who may have entry to it’s to be decided (that is nonetheless three years out), nevertheless it’s not an afterthought to quiet jealous researchers. The group must get used to the instruments and work with Cray to refine the system earlier than it strikes on to the highest secret stuff. And opening it as much as a wide range of analysis issues and strategies is an effective way to do it, whereas additionally offering a public good.
But Goldstein referred to the 3D simulations of nuclear weapons physics because the “killer app” of the brand new pc system. Maybe not the phrase I’d have chosen. Nevertheless it’s exhausting to disclaim the significance of creating certain the nuclear stockpile is practical and never leaking or falling aside — I simply want probably the most highly effective pc ever deliberate had a bit extra noble of a goal.